1. The pros and cons of stone products
The pros and cons of the stone supply can be measured according to certain evaluation standards. Here, there are not only unified and general standards but also classification standards for similar comparisons of different types and different types of stones. Both the universal standard and the classification standard should include the two major factors of science and art, which are indispensable. At the same time, because the shape, color, quality, texture, and other ornamental elements, and physical and chemical properties of each stone type are different from each other, and their styles are different, their appreciation points and aesthetic standards are also different. We also need to evaluate a single stone supply. Notice.
We must also remember that Kistler is a product of nature, after all, so we can’t stick to the rules and immutability, that is, the so-called “master can teach people rules, but can’t make people clever.”
(1) Completeness. Refers to whether the overall shape of the stone is perfect, whether the pattern is complete, whether there are any extra or missing parts, whether the color matching is reasonable, whether the stone muscle and skin are natural and complete, and whether there are flaws.
The supply of stone is generally not allowed to be cut, and it must be kept as natural as possible. If it is carved or modified by someone, it belongs to the art of stone carving. Some stone admirers have extremely strict requirements, even cutting the bottom is not allowed, thinking that the stability of the bottom can only be adjusted by the base. However, some stone types, such as Anglostone, cannot be obtained unless the bottom is cut. Therefore, the cut-off behavior cannot be generalized.
Before evaluating a piece of stone, we must carefully examine its integrity from top to bottom, front to back, and left to right. If there are obvious defects, they should be discarded instead of being taken. Special attention should be paid to whether there is any breakage; some of the stone supply is broken and glued, leaving traces on the glued place.
(B) Modeling. Refers to the shape of the stone. This is the content of the concrete and abstract stone offerings.
“Wrinkles, thinness, leakage, transparency, ugliness, beauty, and oddity” are important factors in evaluating the appearance of Taihu stone, Lingbi stone, Ying stone, Mohu stone, and other similar types of stone. All the above seven elements are available, and their shape must be beautiful.
wrinkle. The surface of the stone muscle is undulating and changes, with folds and curves, with a wind and frost feeling that has experienced vicissitudes of life. (“Wrinkle”, also refers to the texture of stone skin, as detailed later.)
thin. The body should be bloated, the skeleton should be solid and graceful, with clear outlines.
leak. In the undulating curve, the bumps are obvious, like caves, which are full of meaning.
through. It is ethereal, exquisite, and pleasant. It is marked by holes of varying sizes, which can show the boundlessness of the background, which is reverie.
ugly. The more abstract concept is all about comprehending when choosing and appreciating stones, “turning decay into magic”. In the Warring States Period, Zhuangzi proposed “zhengmei” which combines beauty, ugliness, and grotesque in the same way. Later Su Dongpo and Zheng Banqiao put forward the “Ugly Stone View”. The meaning is that you must not appreciate the stone with the sentiment of appreciating beautiful women, but must be otherworldly.
show. It seems contradictory to “ugly”, but it is a unity of opposites. The emphasis is on vividness, elegance, and elegance, and avoiding arrogance.
strange. The shape is rare in the same kind of stone, it is unforgettable, and the personality is extremely unique.
Lingbi stone, Ying stone, Boshan aragonite, Honghe stone, and many other types of stone have natural landscape stones. In the section “Classification of Stones”, the various forms of natural landscape stones have been roughly introduced. Those who are difficult to match with the said can not be included in the top grade. The top-grade natural landscape stone should also meet the following two conditions: strong and stability.
male. Refers to extraordinary momentum, or majestic, or tall and powerful.
stable. The front and back left and right proportions are symmetrical, which is in line with the natural state of a certain landscape. At the same time, the base should be stable and as secure as Mount Tai, without giving people a sense of restlessness.
Each type of stone has abstract stones, and the proportion is very high. To evaluate whether their shapes are beautiful, Taihu stones are evaluated based on the “seven elements”, while some stone types, such as Honghe stone, Holo stone, Huanghe stone, Huijiang stone, etc., are based on the combination of points, lines, and surfaces. Whether it is complete to comment. In the abstract stone, there is often a focus of attention. The extension of this point is a line, the directional extension is a straight line, and the changing direction extension is a curve. The stone is a kind of artwork with a three-dimensional image. In the three-dimensional space, the line is the boundary line of the surface. In the three-dimensional space, the shape is a body composed of faces, and the line is attached to the boundary of the shape and changes. When the abstract stone body composed of points, lines and surfaces are smooth, quiet, or dynamic, it has a sense of beauty. As for its superiority, a specific stone should be evaluated.
There are also concrete stones in the pebbles such as Yellow River Stone and Oujiang Stone, which are very precious if they are vivid in shape. Stone admirer Li Weixin once introduced a flat round pebble in his article “Wonderful Ornamental Stones”: “One is big and the other is small. Due to the difference in weathering, the black stone on the interlayer is displayed, forming a naughty monkey head, which is big and round. His black eyes, high and wide forehead and brow bones, straight and long nose bridge and small nostrils, and thin long face are really wonderful. The most vivid thing in the mouth and the thin lips happen to be staggered from the left to the right, showing that A funny face. A concrete pebble-like this is undoubtedly worth keeping.
(3) Color. Each type of stone has different requirements. Kushi and stalactites are crystallized and snow-white, the yellow wax stone is pure yellow frozen, Taihu stone is blue and white, Laoshan green stone is dark green, Lingbi stone and Boshan aragonite are black and black, Mohu Stones are topped with oil, black and smooth; many pebbles are also colored stones. Simple colors or clever combinations of multiple colors may be classified as top-grade, but those with unclear colors and chaotic collocations will not be crowded.
Generally speaking, the colors of concrete and abstract stones are better than the thick and simple dark series. Especially the landscape stone, due to the influence of traditional landscape ink painting, has always attached importance to the creation of artistic conception, in order to seek the profoundness of the landscape, advocating the dark series. Such as dark, dark green, brown, purple, crimson, etc. Most avoid color turbidity and irritating “pretty” color.
The above are only general principles and cannot be generalized. For example, some Bailingbi has a bright white color, a clean and icy jade, and a good combination of other conditions such as styling. Naturally, they may become top-grade. Laoshan green stones are in the form of landscape, although the green and white chapters, if the matching is just right, there are also the best products, such as “Minshan Xueji” in color picture 12.
(4) Stone quality. Stone quality includes factors such as hardness, density, texture, and gloss. Among them, hardness is the key to determining the quality of the stone.
Hardness-the ability of minerals to resist certain external mechanical effects, especially scoring, is usually measured by a Mohs hardness meter. The Mohs hardness standard is divided into ten grades, with ten kinds of rocks representing its hardness. The stone should have appropriate hardness. The stone is too soft, easy to be brittle, weathered, loose, and porous, giving a feeling of decay; too hard stone also has shortcomings, too high hardness often leads to a lack of sentiment and an elegant atmosphere Running in the opposite direction, it is difficult to achieve a situation that will never get tired of. Therefore, the hardness of the stone should be at least 4 degrees or more, preferably not more than 7 degrees.
Appropriate hardness gives a sense of weight, a high degree of coagulation, a delicate and firm appearance, and a strong gloss. For example, the Lingbi stone, which has been admired in the past dynasties, has very superior tone quality, with a hardness of about 6 degrees. The stone is dense and uniform, with a sense of weight and warmth. The texture of Taihu stone is relatively loose, and the stone quality of the two is naturally different. As for the Banna stone, the hardness is only 4 degrees. Although its shape has changed, it is obvious that it is loose and brittle when it is closer. It is not the same as Taihu stone.
In addition, some rocks have coarse crystals, because the diffuse reflection of light from each crystal face makes people feel not smooth and unclean.
The same is true for pebbles. Some pebbles (the “Yuhua Stone” mentioned in the next chapter) contain agate, which is hard and dense and looks bright and lovely. Most pebbles are limestone, sandstone, metamorphic rock, and the stone is relatively rough. This kind of pebble texture not only can’t add color to the modeling texture pattern, but also often reduces the color, and the difference is easier to distinguish.
(5) Shi Yin. A good stone can be tapped with a hard rod to make a pleasant sound. This situation is not only reflected in the Lingbi stone but other stones can also be distinguished in the comparison of the same stone species. For example, in Yingshi, Lu You from the Song Dynasty said in his “Notes to Lao Xue’an”: “The good ones are warm and green, and the sound of knocking is like gold and jade… The color of nan, the sound is like hitting rotten wood, and all of them are unproductive.
(6) Stone muscle. Shiji is the surface skin of the stone. For a stone with a certain hardness, exposed to the mountain soil and subjected to wind and rain, or under the impact of water for many years in the river bed, the softer part of the epidermis will naturally exfoliate into stone muscle, while the harder part will become rounded after being washed. Generally speaking, the stone with grease luster and diamond luster is the highest, the glass luster and metallic luster are the second, and the dull one is the worst. Stone admirers often say “run” and “warm”, mainly referring to good gloss. The dull stone is relatively dry, and the surface always seems to be covered with a layer of dust, which is not ideal. As early as the Song Dynasty, Zhao Xihu pointed out in “Dong Tian Qing Lu”: Shi Yi “the color is lovely, the boring one is not expensive”.
Naturally formed stone muscle can best express elegant and simple beauty. Most of the stone muscles have undulations, and one of the meanings of “wrinkle” refers to this. The common ones are walnut pattern, candied date pattern, sword mark, milk cube, rice dot, honeycomb, gold star, jade vein, and so on. Some stone types, such as Boshan Aragonite, have wrinkles on the stone surface, which are similar to the “smearing method” of Chinese landscape painting. More accurately, the painter has carefully observed the smeared patterns of the mountains and rocks and created the “dripping method”. . Borrowing the terminology of traditional Chinese painting techniques, the sacred patterns of the stone muscles generally include ax splitting, hemp draping, cirrus cloud, folding belt and so on.
The stone, especially the natural landscape stone, is shiny and wrinkled, which is spiritual and simple, and beautiful. This kind of stone muscle is the most ideal.
(7) Texture. Refers to the pattern on the surface of the stone. For patterned stones, whether the texture is beautiful and durable is the primary factor in the evaluation. For other stone supplies, texture matching is also very important. The texture on the rock is mainly native during the diagenesis period, or the rock is infiltrated by the mineral fluid. The second is the weathering of the rock in the later period and even the formation of various patterns. For example, Guangxi Honghe Stone, the original rock is light gray fine sandstone, which is impregnated and cemented by red iron oxide after being broken. After weathering, the background color is yellowish, and some show yellow ground red lines. In addition, if the fine veins of calcite or quartz are poured into the rock, white streaks will also be formed. The waterfall in the natural landscape rock is formed in this way.
(8) Volume. Refers to the size of the donor stone. Body size generally does not constitute a factor of the pros and cons of the stone, but only serves as a reference for the price when used as a commodity. However, if the offering stone is too small, it will be difficult to reflect the beautiful scenery of the mountains, and it is not easy to attract people’s attention. Display and garden decoration. The height of the stone is generally above 5 cm, preferably below 100 cm. 5 cm to 20 cm for small stones, 20 cm to 65 cm for medium stones, and 66 cm to 100 cm for large stones. This standard is relatively speaking. For example, some stone supply is only forty or fifty centimeters high, but the length and width exceed the height by a lot. This is undoubtedly a large-scale stone supply.
2. Counterfeiting and identification of famous products
There is no such thing as true or false of the stone, but the stone has the value of viewing, collecting, and spreading. The problem. This type of problem occurred as early as the Song Dynasty, and the ancients had taken effective inspection measures based on practical experience.
Some Taihu stones are similar in shape to Lingbi stones, and the tapping is also sound. Some people dye the Taihu stones black to pretend to be Lingbi stones. How to distinguish it? Since the hardness of the Lingbi stone is higher than that of the Taihu stone, the base of the stone can be gently scraped with a sharp blade during the inspection. If the stone chips are scraped out, it is a false spiritual wall. In addition, although the Taihu stone has white veins, it is far less clear and numerous than the white stripes reflected in the black Lingbi stone. This is also a way to distinguish.
Taihu stone is divided into water and drought, and water stone has been stricken by waves for a long time. The rough surface of the stone has “靥”, commonly known as “ball nest”, and the stone is warm and moist. Dry rocks have long been born on the shores of mountains, and the stone surface is relatively flat and withered, and it is not expensive. Therefore, some stone merchants dig out streak holes with dry stone axes and then sink them into the lake with nets. After one or two years or even several years, they will be picked up and sold as water-filled stones. Distinguishing water and dry rocks mainly depends on whether the pits of the stone are natural or not, and whether the stone muscles are round and shiny. The above is the experience of the ancients in testing and identifying the stone.
In modern times, to distinguish the true and false of the stone, we also look at whether the stone is used as a famous product. This can be identified according to the introduction in the section “Famous stone for the stone”; in addition, it still depends on whether its shape is artificially processed.
There are two main methods of artificial processing, one is sticking, the other is ax chiseling, bottom sawing, and hole drilling.
The purpose of gluing is often to increase the ingenuity of the stone supply. There are many strange stones in the house of Li Zhengchen, a painter and stone merchant in the Song Dynasty. “The peaks of the stones are intertwined with foreign strangers to increase the danger. There are many such stones in Li’s house” (see “The Book of Clouds and Forests”). Glue is mainly used for figurative stones, so when observing natural landscape stones, you should pay attention to the peaks of the stones. When observing hieroglyphic stones, you should pay attention to the protruding parts (such as hands, feet, wings, facial features, etc.) to see if they are completely in line with the main body. One body, whether there are any traces of glue.
Ax chiseling, cutting surface, and saw bottom are not suitable for most stone supplies (except for special stone types such as Laoshan green stone and marble). The ancients used ax-chisel hacksaws to make it easier to distinguish, because the traces were more obvious, while modern people use hydrochloric acid to blur the fake traces, making it more difficult to distinguish. Now some people use a more ingenious electric drill and electric file method in order to increase the value of Kistler. Because there are many types of drill bits and grinding wheels, you can drill holes and sharpen peaks at will. A piece of unremarkable landscape stone, after processing in this way, will be concave and convex, with overlapping peaks and mountains, and deep caves and valleys. Moreover, after drilling the hole and grinding the peak, the processor often needs to use fine sanding and hydrochloric acid to stain it carefully. It is often difficult for casual people to distinguish between true and false. It must be carefully distinguished whether the stone modeling is artificially processed or not. If the naked eye is not good, you can use a magnifying glass to carefully observe the peculiarities of the stone. One is to see whether the stone surface is different from other places, whether there are “violent spots” or “drilling and chiseling”; then see whether the texture suddenly changes direction, Then see if there are subtle shade changes in its color. Those who are experienced can often tell the truth from the false by feeling, so the processed stone is often difficult to escape from their eyes, just like ancient porcelain in the palm of a porcelain master, and the approximate age of it can be told in an instant. Master Stones may not have much theory, but their intuition and experience are very valuable.