Gemstones mainly include diamonds, night pearls, opals, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, etc., which are expensive. Although artificial gems are exquisitely made, they are fake gems.
Generally speaking, fake gemstones can be divided into four categories, one is plastic and glass imitations; the other is imitation made by bonding stones similar to gems; the third is fake diamonds (such as aluminum oxide) with chemical compounds; The pigment is added to the transparent ore, posing as a gem.
Here are some identification methods:
1. Appearance: Real gems have clear and natural textures, clouds, and crystals; fake gems have no natural textures, clouds, and crystals.
2. Heat transfer: real gemstones transfer slowly after being heated, and feel cool when touched by hand; fake gemstones transfer heat quickly after being heated and feel warm when touched by hand.
3. Observe with a magnifying glass: There are curved swirling flow patterns on the surface and inside of fake gems, round or oval bubbles, and traces of fracture casting, etc., but real gems do not have this phenomenon.
4. Hardness: Diamond hardness is 10 degrees, ruby, sapphire is 9 degrees and gems with lower hardness. In the part that does not affect the appearance, use a diamond to scratch the gemstone, if it can leave a scratch, it is a real diamond; you can also scratch the gemstone on topaz (hardness 8), if it leaves a trace, it is a real gemstone.
5. Color: Red, blue, green, orange, purple, yellow, and many colors. For example, rubies, pigeon blood red is the best. Natural gems have inclusions and cracks when viewed with a magnifying glass. Artificial gems are particularly pure, free of impurities, bubbles, and traces of “doing”.
6. Pleochroism: real gemstones have pleochroism. For example, sapphire looks blue when viewed from the sun, and blue-green when viewed from the side; fake gemstones have no such characteristics.
7. Fire roasting: The real gemstone will not break during the fire roasting; the fake gemstone will break when the temperature rises to 90 degrees Celsius when it is roasted, and it may be a fake.