General situation: The development and utilization of stone can be traced back to ancient times and even ancient times, such as the Paleolithic age, such as the Egyptian pyramids, the Roman Arena, the Greek Dragon Temple, the ancient Great Wall of China, and so on. After entering the industrial revolution, the western industrial countries represented by Italy and Germany invented and started modern stone processing machinery, which opened a precedent for modern stone processing. The processing equipment, craftsmanship, and various tools and knives used in this stage are It is the most classic. In the 1960s and 1970s, the invention and use of diamond tools brought a qualitative leap in stone processing speed. Then, in the 1970s and 1980s, the introduction and development of high-pressure water jet technology and computer control technology in the stone industry brought the stone processing accuracy to a higher level. Today’s stone processing basically covers the most primitive manual craftsmanship to the most advanced modern craftsmanship and numerical control systems.
Stone industry industrial chain: including stone resource mining, geological exploration, mining, raw material transportation, stone trade, stone processing, product transportation, installation, etc. Related professional fields will involve geology, petrology, mechanical processing, building decoration, Decoration design, stone variety selection, physical and chemical index testing, etc.;
Stone types: According to the composition of the stone, the American Society for Testing and Materials divides naturally facing stones into Granite, Limestone, Marble, Quartz-based, Slate and There are six categories of other stone materials (see ASTM C119 standard for details. In the past, my country’s national standards once stipulated that marble, granite, slate, and others were far from meeting the needs of the market, so they have been updated in recent years. In addition, in recent years, Due to the increasing demand for various types of stone, “other” stone has been continuously extended to various semi-precious stones, precious stones, or more new stone types with richer colors and patterns, and the materials used are on the rise).
Stone product categories: according to different processing techniques, it can be divided into special-shaped products (including carvings, arc plates, hollow columns, solid columns, lines, parquets, etc.), plate products (including large plates, specification plates, thin plates, etc.); according to the use The location can be divided into indoor stone, outdoor stone; wall (facade) stone, ground stone; building stone (such as bridge pier), decorative stone (such as various facing stones), etc.;
Processing process: As far as the processing of various stone products is concerned, the processing technology of different products is different. For example, the most common decorative stone panels and lines, the processing techniques are as follows:
1. The processing flow of the plate specification board is: material planning-block selection-large slab sawing-large slab rubber repair (marble usually also needs to mesh)-large slab grinding and polishing-large slab material selection-cutting specification board (If necessary, bottom skimming and edging are required)-specification board swinging, color mixing-numbering-inspection-packaging-transportation-installation, etc.;
2. The stone line processing process is material planning-block selection-blank cutting-blank setting, color mixing-modeling (forming)-grinding, polishing (cutting corners and slender if necessary)-trial and adjustment Color-number-inspection-packaging-transportation-installation, etc.;
The processing procedures of other types of products are basically similar. For example, the first half of the processing of parquet is basically the same as that of the specification board, except that the processing of the second half of the pattern part requires machines, tools, or waterjet cutting patterns and parts. The inlay, bond, and polish; another example is the processing of engraving products. The first half is also very similar to the line processing, but in the later stage of the engraving, manual engraving or CNC machine tools are needed for engraving.
Regardless of the type of product processing, various processing equipment at home and abroad are relatively mature and can be matched.
The quality of the products of various stone processing plants or whether they can be processed depends on the following aspects: first, whether they are equipped with equipment; second, whether these equipment are well developed and used; third, the product is processed Is there good research, understanding, and grasp of similar stone materials (because stone processing is resource-oriented, coupled with their natural attributes, the “grasp” of the raw materials is very important, and the grasping methods mostly come from experience accumulation); It is also very important that when encountering new stone products that need to be processed with various technical difficulties, it is often necessary for the processing plant to gather all kinds of interdisciplinary and cross-professional technical personnel to jointly conduct product development, technical public relations, and improve the company’s Talent and resource reserves put forward higher requirements.
At present, there are no (or only individual) schools and scientific research institutions to set up corresponding majors for education and research on various stone material resources, processing equipment, technology, processing tools, auxiliary materials, etc., and more rely on relevant factories to organize themselves, However, ordinary factories often have difficulty making achievements due to the degree of emphasis or the lack of resources in various aspects.
Technical specifications: foreign industry standards, the more representative ones are the American ASTM standard, the Japanese stone standard, and the European Union EN standard. Domestic standards mainly refer to ASTM standards, so they are the closest to ASTM standards. Common standard items are:
1. “Natural Stone Terminology” (GB/T 13890-2008) corresponds to the foreign standard ASTM C119-05;
2. The “Uniform Numbering of Natural Stones” (GB/T 17670-2008) corresponds to the foreign standard EN 12440:2000;
3. “Natural Granite Building Board” GB/T 18601-2009 corresponds to the foreign standard ASTM C615-03;
4. “Natural Limestone Building Board” GB/T 23453-2009 corresponds to the foreign standard ASTM C568-03;