Not long ago, a jade-type stone resource was discovered in western my country. This is the only super-large natural jade-type stone deposit discovered in western my country. The author was once fortunate to be invited to inspect the mine. At present, the resource has begun small-scale, multi-mining, semi-mechanized mining, and its blocks, board products, and handicrafts have also been tested in a small range in the stone market, and have been well received by users.
The material is as delicate as jade, lustrous and moist, and the craftsmanship made is exquisite and brilliant, which is rare in the domestic carved stone.
1. mine profile, the stone mine is located in the vast Gobi between Xinjiang and Gansu. The sea level is 1800~2038m. The natural conditions are relatively difficult. The summer is hot, dry, and rainless, and the winter is cold. The frozen soil is 1.2~1.5m deep and the groundwater depth is 3.5m. . The transportation conditions in the mining area are acceptable. There are national highways and railways nearby, and the distance is about 20km. There are simple roads connected with each other. Cars are the main means of transportation.
2. General geological resources, the mining area is more than 25 km long from east to west, and about 4 km wide from north to south. The mountains are spread from east to west with a relative height difference of about 130m.
2.1 Stratum. The entire outcrop of the mountain is the Mesoproterozoic Pingshantou Formation. The lithology is flesh-red microcrystalline marble, quartzite, siliceous band marble, siliceous dolomite, and limestone with chlorite quartz schist.
On the north side of the mountain fault, the exposed strata are the first and second sections of the Upper Middle Silurian Gongpoquan Formation. The lithology of the first section of the Gongpoquan Formation is mainly metamorphic sandstone, shale, and tuff sandstone; the western end The lithology of the second section is metamorphic lithology-crystalline tuff, andesite crystalline tuff, metamorphic plate tuff, tuffaceous sandstone intercalated with gray banded limestone, and the eastern end is mainly andesite and andesite. Tuff mixed with limestone and shale.
2.2 Structure, there is an east-west fault on the north side of the mountain, 25km long, inclined to the south, with a dip angle of 50°~70°. It is a high-angle reverse fault with steep ridges on the topography, clear sliding surfaces, and well-developed surface quartzite joints. Due to the compression of the geological structure, the mountain has formed a closed fold structure, the folds trend east-west, and the north and south wings of the fold are relatively steep, with a dip angle of 70°~80°.
2.3 Brief characteristics of the deposit. The lithology of the ore body is mainly secondary quartzite, and a small part is a marble. The ore body is obviously exposed, the surface weathering is strong, dark brown, and the oxidized weathering layer is about 5m. The genesis is formed by acidic volcanic lava through hydrothermal substitution.
The ore is brittle, with white, bluish-white, light green, flesh red, light purple, black and white, red and white strips, among which bluish-white and light green account for about 3/5, white for about 1/5, and meat red It accounts for 1/7, and strips account for 1/20. Due to the complex structure and the development of fractures and joints, the surface rocks are mostly cut into cubic blocks under the action of three sets of tectonic stress due to the action of tectonic stress, which is extremely beneficial to mining. The maximum block size is about 10m3, and the general block size is about 10m3. 2~5m3.
The ore is extremely fine, with a cryptocrystalline structure, massive structure, and translucent. The main mineral components are cryptocrystalline quartz and a small amount of sericite. The particle size is mostly 0.14~0.48mm, of which quartz accounts for about 98%, sericite accounts for about 1%, followed by traces of bluestone, activity, rutile, and tourmaline Other minerals; the main chemical components of the ore are SiO2 97.2%~97.8%, Fe2O3 0.19%~0.2%, Al2O3 0.54%~0.85%, without any radioactive substances, Mohs hardness of 6.7~7.0, the specific gravity of 2.65~3.2.
Part of the collected samples was evaluated by relevant gemstone experts, and the ore of blue and white, light green, flesh red, and black and white bands can be called aventurine jade, and the pure white is Jingbai jade. The jade has a fine texture and grease luster, just like “lamb jade”, it is especially bright in cutting and polishing, and it is a fine stone; the flesh red variety is very bright in color and is a high-quality raw material for carving ornaments.
The mining area has done some simple geological work, but as a stone mine, it is far from enough. From the field survey, the trend of the ore body is relatively stable, and the variety and quality have changed greatly. At present, the mine has arranged 4 to 5 points along the strike for small-scale mining, which is equivalent to trial mining. Judging from the trial mining situation, there are many kinds of ore, the quality varies from place to place, the overall quality is good, and the variety of each mining site is relatively stable. However, due to the relatively backward mining methods, the use of gunpowder blasting mining results in a very low rate of blocks estimated to be only 10%. This not only seriously wastes high-quality stone resources, but also causes hidden cracks in some blocks, which greatly reduces the quality of blocks and products. , Is not conducive to the full and reasonable development and utilization of this resource.
2.4 Mining technical conditions, because the mined terrain is hilly and Gobi, the relative height difference of the mountain is about 130m, which is higher than the local erosion base level, and there is very little atmospheric precipitation, so the hydrogeological conditions are relatively simple. Production and domestic water can be solved by drilling wells and taking groundwater. The mountain is mainly composed of quartzite, the rock is hard and dense, and it is a hard engineering geological rock group; the surface weathering layer is about 5m thick, relatively loose, and is a soft engineering geological rock group; near the fault and the joint development zone, the rock is relatively broken and stable Poor, it is also a weak engineering geological rock group. The mining area is located in the Gobi, with no residents around, and mining has little impact on the environment.
2.5 The decorative performance of ore, due to its “zero radioactivity” characteristics and high hardness, it can be widely used in indoor and outdoor decoration; at the same time, because of its high quality and strong jade texture, it can be used for various jade articles, handicrafts, and furniture inlays. Such processing is a high-grade stone. At present, the varieties produced by the mine include purple red jade, milk rose, green-white jade, Zhaojun red, violet, zebra jade, prince charming, plum blossom jade, red diamond, etc. Among them, milk rose, Zhaojun red, and prince charming are excellent carvings. The stone has a greasy luster, slippery but not greasy, moist but not astringent, and has a milk foam-like texture. It can be used as ornaments, furniture inlays, jade, and accessories.
2.6 The number of geological resources. Through certain surface and ground holding work, the geological resources of the mine are about 4 billion m3, and the usable stone is about 2 billion m3. However, the deep potential resources of the mine are very large and need to be ascertained by future geological work.
2.7 There are problems and suggestions. Due to the low level of geological work in the mine, the types, distribution, and resources of stone species in the mining area cannot be fully ascertained, and the overall development and utilization of resources in the entire mining area cannot be planned.
In view of the uniqueness of this resource, research on comprehensive utilization of its small and scrap materials should be strengthened to improve resource utilization.
3.1 Mining method, the surrounding terrain of the mining area is relatively gentle, and the ore body protrudes out of the ground in a mountain shape with a relative height difference of 130m. According to this condition, the mine can adopt open-pit mining on the hillside (partial depression). With the development of mountain gullies, gullies can be used as double-wall trenches for mining preparations to reduce the number of mining preparations for the mine, and mining can be carried out on both sides of the valley at the same time to increase the production capacity of the mine. Each relatively independent mountain can be mined as a mining unit.
3.2 Development plan and mining method. The above-surface ore body is suitable for a single road development-automobile transportation development plan, and a mast crane-automobile transportation development plan can be adopted for the partially depressed part.
The mining technology currently used in the mine is rock drilling → blasting separation → top turning → disintegration and division → shaping → lifting and loading → ballast removal →. Among them, blasting separation mainly uses black powder blasting. Due to the backward blasting technology, unreasonable blasting parameters, rock brittleness, and rock joints and cracks, the production rate of blocks is generally 10% to 15%, and the quality of the blocks is greatly affected. Injury, seriously wasting valuable high-quality resources. Therefore, the mining technology of jade stone deposits should be researched and tested. It is recommended that the mining technology of chain arm sawing should be researched and tested. It is recommended that chain arm saws or diamond wire saws should be used for mining, which can prevent blasting. The destruction of stone quality reduces the waste of resources; secondly, it can increase the production rate of blocks and reduce costs.
4. Stone processing and product positioning. Because the stone resource has unique characteristics such as translucent and strong jade, the product processing can be mainly thin plate and special-shaped processing, supplemented by shaped plates. At the same time, high-quality blocks can be used for the production of stone carvings and stone sculptures, and the small materials and scraps produced by the mining can be used to process handicrafts, ornaments, jade, and accessories.
5. Investment calculations. Because the mining area is large and the resources are extremely rich, the mining points and areas are not easy to spread too much, too wide, and too large at once. It is advisable to mine 6 to 8 main varieties. The investment in the mine is mainly mining equipment Purchase, infrastructure projects (simple roads in mines, civil engineering, and stripping), and supporting facilities (water, heating, circuits, communications, etc.), with a total investment of about 60-100 million yuan.